Edwin Amuga
32 min readJun 28, 2022


3D VISUALIZATION GRAMMAR-literature review

Physiology of the Human Eye

Limits of the Human Vision

Deering (1998), in his document on human vision limits, presented the perception model limit of the system of vision of a human being and estimated the pixels of an eye at 15 million variable resolutions. The author predicted that rendering sufficient for human eye saturation at the rate of ten billion triangles in a second, assuming that the 60Hz stereo display at the six complexity depth. The author also analyzed 17 different physically realizable to help understand the limits of visual perception.

Weave (1999), in Limitations of the Human Eye, describes the human eye as a remarkable biological invention and an evolution’s shining triumph. The author also terms the eye as the detector that enables planet and cosmos exploration and lists a number of its shortcomings that limit the further investigation of life. The author names limited size and light-gathering power, a limited frequency response that can only see electromagnetic radiation in visible wavelengths, and distinguishes a new image many times per second. He argues that it cannot be used in light accumulation over an extensive time to intensify faint image, and inability to store images for future references as compared to photographic plates as limits of the human eye. The author also acknowledges that many instruments and techniques have been developed to supplement the human eye to alleviate shortcomings.

Color and Light Sensitivity

Blake et al. (2020) look at light and color sensitivity. He argued that increased the structures of the human eye is sensitive to polarization throughout the eye in a journal polarized sensitivity to light and color. The author asserts that, like in arthropod taxa in compound eyes, the human eye has an ever-increasing number of taxa, and this results in sensitivity to polarization. The author also contends that an area not well understood in the process is the downstream polarized reflection processing from objects. The author compares light and color sensitivity in the human eye and that of a small butterfly and demonstrates and exploits the polarized foliar reviews. The author narrows explicitly down on the linear polarization degree as to how the little butterfly recognizes the host plant. The visual system of the butterfly consists of three basic types of photoreceptors that are polarized light-sensitive, namely, blue, green, and red. The interaction of photoreceptors and their roles in behavioral responses to different stimuli that have different degrees of linear polarization is still unexplored and unknown. The author used several ways to investigate the potential neurological mechanisms and designed a few two-choice behavioral assays and displayed the images of plants on paired LCD monitors.

Color Blindness

Hassan, Bernard, and McLaren (2017), authors of Gene Therapy studying Achromatopsia, argued that its the most common autosomal recessive changes of the underlying gene mutations responsible for color blindness. Achromatopsia is a loss of congenital vision brought about by dysfunction of an isolated cone photoreceptor. This source trails different phases of gene therapy that are being conducted in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The authors detail AAV gene therapy for the treatment of Achromatopsia and avail new data that show the Cnga3+ rodent rescue representation by a vector named rAAV.CBA.CNGA3. The authors concluded that the challenge for restoring integrated cone retinofugal pathways is the synthesis of implications of the animal model in the system of visioning of an adult. The authors present substantiation portentous that achromatopsia psychotherapy must be applied at childhood to ensure effectiveness.

Pandit and Dhakal (2020) assessed color vision in human beings. They argued that the harmonic and synergistic functions of the optic nerve, retina, parts of the visual cortex, and the thalamus form the primary areas for color perception. The color vision in human beings is trichromatic, implying that it is a mixture of blue, red, and green lights (Wang et al., 2008). This cross-sectional study was conducted between August and October 2018 among 300 healthcare students between the ages of 18 and 25. The color blindness assessment was done among 150 males, and an equal number of females and color deficiencies were found in 7 male participants only, representing 2.3% of the study group. None of the participants were found to be weak or color blind. One protanomaly, two deuteranomaly, and four deuteranopias were found among the seven color deficient students. The research dwelt in the physiology of the human eye and deficiency causative reasons in pursuit of its objectives.

Visual Attention

Shahrbabaki (2015) did a study on the role of color in visual attention that aimed to shed light on the influence of color information on the part of eye movements during video observations to incorporate the color information into a visual saliency model that included color saliency maps. The researcher compared the central regions in color videos concerning areas of grayscale and observed that color information moderately affected characteristics of eye movements, including gaze positions and fixation durations.

Lavoue, Cordier, Seo, and Larabi (2018) conducted a study on rendered 3D shapes visual attention and argued that it is necessary to comprehend the human optical system’s attentional behavior in the visualization of rendered 3D shapes for use in many computer graphics. The researchers believe that the solution to exploring the complex cognitive mechanism in eye tracking and recognize that many research studies have been devoted to the study of videos and images, and only a small number of eye-tracking studies have been done employing the 3D shapes. The authors also argue that another part that needs research is the understanding of latent dynamics that affect specific 3D rendering settings human gaze. They conducted an eye-tracking experiment that involved 3D shapes that had camera positions that are time-varying and static and proposed a process for mapping the fixation of the eye onto 3D shapes producing a benchmark for fixation density maps in 3D, including where humans gaze. The experiments collected data on the illumination, camera position, shapes, and material influence on visual attention. They found material and lighting affected visual attention and dynamic scenes camera path. Two metrics were used in the study to perform a comparison of four representative lattice prominence representations in the prediction of ground-truth fixation. It showed that even if the 3D saliency algorithm is combined with a center-biased model, it remained lacking in the forecast of human fascination. The authors also provided the main factors qualitative analysis that attracted the attention of human vision and showed their weaknesses and gave out a comparison of the focus of the human eye and Schelling points and showed a weak relationship.

Object Recognition

Van Dyck and Gruber (2020) conducted a study to compare the objection performance in the human eye and image manipulation in a deep convolutional neural network. They argued that the deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) had achieved a standard performance in acknowledgment of objects. Consequently, such fields as computational neuroscience and machine learning are discovering various comparison and contrasted between biological vision and artificial ones. The study intended to compare the object recognition behaviors of the visual core of the human optical system and the forward feed networks in a classification learning paradigm on an ImageNet data set. In pursuit of these objectives, the study sampled 65 human participants that competed in an online experiment against a range of feed forward DCNNs. The seven different monkey group typical learning process-based approach used in the study encompassed a training and validation phase with natural experiences and a testing phase that had new color and shape manipulations. The study showed that humans do better than DCNNs in every condition and display superior strength in alterations of both color and shapes. Additionally, these findings were highlighted by the examination of behavioral patterns that showed independent errors in classification between the groups. The results of the study endorsed recurrent circuit implementation that is comparable to the ventral stream of primates in models of artificial vision in achieving adequate object generalization abilities across inexperienced manipulations.

Hafi, Ding, Takamatsu, and Ogasawara (2017) came up with a method of identifying the focused objects in eye images captured using a single camera to facilitate innate eye-based relations using wearable devices. The authors posit that eye images allow and obtain natural user responses from cornea scene reflections and movements of the eye without the help of additional sensors, for instance, the frontal camera, a fact that contributes to its social acceptance. The method proposed by the researchers is reliant on a 3D eye representation rebuilding in evaluating the eye image gaze directions. The gaze course was combined with a deep learning algorithm in the classification of focused objects the cornea reflects. The experimental results used a wearable prototype to express the latency of the process based on eye imaged captured using a single camera.

Perception Adaptations and Object Categorization

Witzel and Gegenfurtner (2018) used scientific methods to investigate eye color and linked the appearance of color connecting to colorimetric quantifying the light entering the eye. The primary purpose of perception of the color was to help in visual, and perception of materials in the surroundings rather than determining the incident light properties. The study looked into the state of the art colors on items, the reliability of colors, and groups of colors to study the functional spacers of color perception. The common ground of research area was that the color appearance was loosely linked to identifying objects and materials and communication among observers. The researchers concluded that attention should be focused on how the processing of color is modified to the object’s surface properties as depicted in the normal surroundings to link the space between the color perception early stages and the subjective color appearance.

Kaiser, Quek, Cichy, and Peleen (2019) argue that objects appear in typical locations in natural vision. Object appearance is dependent on the visual space. The authors acknowledge that recent studies have immensely contributed to the subject and show that object vision depends on irregularities in positioning. In the study, the authors delve into the developments and highlight the adaptations for position regularities that facilitate the detection and recognition of objects and the sharpening of object representation in the visual cortex. The researchers believe that the effects are all-encompassing across a range of advanced content types and argue that the adjustments to real-world structure cooperatively underpin the optimal limited cortical processing resources usage. Considering position irregularities is crucial for the comprehension of the real world efficient vision of an object.

Visual Clutter

Medwetz(2019) did a research study that sought to comprehend the effects of color on visual clutter sensitivity as well as the user emotion and behaviors in interior spaces. The point that the stimulus is area is regarded as an overload and is not any further pleasing to the user. The authors argue that the design becomes more intentional in creating spaces encouraging productivity, festive mood, and satisfaction and stress that it is crucial to consider the intentionally make the use and amount of visual stimuli in an area. The purpose of the study was to establish the facets of visual clutter about the perception and color studied and describes this relationship established as well as give reasoning that supports the need for future study. The researchers concluded that internal environments affect the personal and professional lives as well as the mood and task performance abilities in humans. The researchers also conclude that the visual stimulus and the amount of it is a crucial piece that should be studied for the achievement of a successful design.

Wibble et al. (2020) conducted a study whose objective was to examine the effects of revolving visual clutter on ocular torsion, body-sway, vertical skewing, stimulation, subjective discomfort feeling, and automatic papillary response. The authors report that many dizzy patients show hypersensitivity to clutter and visual motion. The research sampled 16 people and subjected them to rotational visual stimulation for twenty seconds. It was found that the visual stimuli consisted of black lines on white backgrounds with high and low visible clutter levels with 38 lines and 19 lines, respectively. The Chronos Eye tracker utilized the study recorded the size of the pupil, vertical skewing and ocular torsion as the automatic response reflection. The study also used the Wii Balance Board to gauge the body-sway area to assess postural control. The values obtained from these procedures were compared to the data retrieved from the 20 seconds optokinetic stimulation exposure of the subjects where they viewed the stationary visual scene. The exposure to high-intensity stimulus resulted in higher torsional velocities significantly. The subjected exposed to low intensity showed higher speed for both high and low intensities with the size of pupil and body sway increasing in the case of higher intensities to stationary and moving visual scenes. Pupil size and body sway correlated positively with torsional velocity. The authors conclude that the response of eye movements, postural control changes, and the automatic response reflected the exposure to the visual clutter. With regards to the results, the researchers claimed that this response might be a clinical utility in the assessment of patients ailing from visual motion hypersensitivity and explicate why some healthy people are uncomfortable when in visually cluttered environments.


Damiano and Walther (2019) did a long line study and showed that memory and vision is linked closely in a manner that the behavior of eye movements helps memory performance. The study drew in two experiments that sought to understand whether positive influences of eye movements on memory are a result of overt exploration of vision during the phase of recognition and encoding. The researchers found that when the subjects moved their eyes during a phase study, the hit rate got higher significantly despite what their actions were in the test phase. The rate of the false alarm was influenced by eye movements in the test phase and decreased when the subjects were advised to explore the scene. In conclusion, the research results reveal eye movement role dissociation during encoding and scene recognition. The researchers argue that eye movements throughout the study are crucial to forming memories and support memory veracity judgment during the tribute.

Leer et al. (2017) conducted experimental studies and found that dual tasks indirectly proportional to self-reported emotionality and vividness of memory. The data are affected by demand, and due to this, little is learnt about the underlying observed effects mechanism. This study was aimed at filling the literature lacuna by providing memory performance objective tests. The researcher posits that desensitization and reprocessing eye movement therapy for PSTD encompass making eye movements when patients recall traumatic images. The findings of the researcher included stimulus recall eye movements lessened the vividness of self-reported memory and, on the other hand, slowed the time of reaction where the subject’s discrimination of the stimulus from perceptually similar stimuli was required. The authors also showed that EM throughout the time strengthened frightened responding to similar and non-threatening stimuli during a frightening stimulus. The variation is shown by danger expectancy, and skin conductance response increases. The researcher concludes that eye movement manipulation renders results in less available stimulation in future recalls.

Designing for Display Types

2D Display size

Figuerora, Arellano, and Calinisan (2017) conducted a classical visual search and used the artificial stimuli in the identification of factors that affect accuracy and search times. The authors argue that people perform visual search tasks in their daily lives that range from petty jobs to emergency tasks. Recent studies have simulated real scene visual search in 2D displays to investigate visual search in natural scenes as the scientific community strives to incorporate new technology in better method and practice formulation. Among the technologies used in virtual reality, a novel technology offering users immersive and evokes real responses. The investigators intended to contrast search efficiencies in real scenes on virtual reality and 2D displays. The virtual search experiment that measured the time and accuracy o reaction was conducted in the evaluation of both methods. The results of the study indicate that real scene virtual search is faster and more accurate in virtual reality than in 2D Displays. The researchers argue that the findings f their study could be a new opportunity for researching virtual search on life scenarios and real scenes.

Gao et al. (2016) in a reviewed recent progress in 2D and 3D display technology field and present the current display materials and their uses such as in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), curved displays, holographic 3D displays, light field 3D displays, stereoscopic 3D displays, volumetric 3D displays, electronic paper (E-paper), flexible OLEDs quantum dot light-emitting diodes and active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes. The current applications of 2D displays include liquid crystal devices that, due to true depth information deficiency, result in ambiguity in high dimensional data images — the study details description of 3D display technologies.

Virtual Reality

Roettl and Terlutter (2018) reviewed virtual reality graphics use in 3D video game technology. They analyzed the similarities and experience among video games played in 2D, stereoscopic 3D, and Head-mounted Virtual Reality versions and how they affect the brands placed in the video games. The authors also analyzed game-related variables including presence, and video gamed attitudes and arousal when playing the game. The authors also examined the Brand placement-related variables, including attitude and recall and recognition memory employed towards the brands in the study that involved 237 players. The results of the survey indicated that HMD virtual reality registered a higher presence than stereoscopic 3D that was also higher than in 2D video games. All the three video games recorded the same arousal and attitudes which were not affected.

In contrast, memory for the brands was higher in 2D video games as compared to the Head-mounted Virtual reality. The authors also conducted a post hoc study on 53 participants. They concluded that cognitive load was lowest in 3D games and highest in Virtual reality games as dizziness levels and motion sickness were higher in Virtual reality than in both 2D and 3D games (Brychtova and Coltekin (2017). The researchers addressed limitations and outlined implications for developers, marketers, and researchers.

Li et al. (2017) conducted a review of virtual reality technology application in the field of clinical medicine, with a focus on surgical training, management of pain, and treatments of mental illnesses, and introduced the common Virtual Reality simulator types and their principles of operation in the above fields. The researchers concluded that the medical field can gain from using virtual reality as a novel technology. The researchers also delved into the advantaged and shortcomings o employing VR technology and argue that advantages outweigh the shortcomings.

In a paper that proposed a new approach for mapping in 3D for indoor environments, Du, Sheng, and Liu (2016) aimed to suggest ways that would allow robot avatars to collaborate with human beings. Collaboration is possible through virtual reality devices and argues that map building is an essential task in the application of robotics. The authors posit that 3D data obtained from an RGB-D camera mounted on a robot, transmitted to a remote server, and rendered to a Virtual Reality device is used in the creation of 3D maps. Conversely, user intentions are inferred through head movement motions on hidden Markov models (HMMs) and interpreted into the robot command controls.

Augmented reality

Yuan (2016) argues that the recent years in display technologies have been marked by the growth of the use of virtual reality and augmented reality even though the concepts were invented decades ago. The author attributes this growth to the fact that people are starting to enjoy their specialized experience as opposed to tolerating them as in the early days. Yuan (2016) believes that from this point, more people believe that virtual reality and augmented reality hold the potential to disrupt and change the world in many aspects.

Sage (2016) posits that creating augmented reality experiences for enterprise use cases requires a lot of conditions met as it is a very complex undertaking. In the case of industrial environments, the author argues that developers and design teams of user experiences can meet many restrictions and unforeseen obstacles. The author also describes designing and developing augmented reality experiences as an interactive process marked by a lot of critical decision making, which if correctly completed, result in a successful project. The author emphasizes the need for informed decision making in the correct order as an advantage for a small developer and experience designer numbers that make more significant achievements from the expertise.

Kurniawan, Sumpeno, and Hariadi (2018), in a physics journal, reviewed technology use in a museum for historical education, keeping historical objects, and preservation of national culture. Technologies, including augmented reality, are increasingly gaining relevance and application in the face of the ever technologically advancing world, smart cities, and the internet of things. The author opines that novel technologies such as augmented reality re transmitted by the ICT developments and believe that the advent of augmented reality technology is helping n the creation of virtual objects of the real world using images and markers. The researcher, in this study, used signals to make virtual objects appear utilizing IEEE 802.14.5 protocol to replace the augmented reality marker. The author also used Triangulation and RSSI as micro-location substitutes for augmented reality objects and concluded that wireless sensor network performance could be used for transmission of data in the museum. The LOS study results showed that the 15-meter distance with 1000ms delay found a 1.4% error rate. In contrast, the NLOS error rate was 2.3%, resulting in concluding that the use of technology using signal wireless sensor networks could replace market augmented reality and be used in museums.



Nueliep (2017) argues that a better part of the world is still cultural in their perception of technology, including 3D visualization and hence the need for cultural integration in the development of the technology. 3D visualization opens opportunities and the need for intercultural communication as an essential skill in the face of globalization as communicating with people from other cultures is on the rise in such areas as business, education, and community. The author posits that the art of knowing how to communicate with different cultures is increasingly becoming a workplace skill, boosting its incorporation in the development of technologies. It is, therefore, essential to consider this in 3D visualization development, in the face of globalization, which allows for significant interaction between users and the technology. Effective interaction will help avoid intercultural conflicts, communication frustrations, and misapprehensions, and in all these helps one improve the acceptance of the technology. Neuliep (2017) also believes that a significant transfer of knowledge is school requires effective, successful communication. The development of the technology will have a rich repertoire of nonverbal and verbal capabilities to enable them users hailing from different cultures from all over the globe accept and welcome the technology and get rid of barriers such as attitudes and dispositions, stereotyping, and ethnocentrism. Intercultural technology communication is, therefore, an essential skill in the 21st century with the advancement in years, technology and scope of education and doing business and many other areas.

Doersch, Gupta, and Efros (2015) claim that 3D visualization helps in extracting insight from data for decision making, especially when large amounts of data are involved. Visualization enables users to understand and perceive data virtually through transparent user-data effective communication interaction methods. It offers a range of advantages such as understanding vast amounts of data, perceiving unexpected properties, extracting problems such as outliers and anomalies, understanding both large and small scale data features, and creating hypotheses related to data. The authors also claim that in communication, the use of graphics to present quantities, processes, and spatial relations in a simple to complex visual language enhances the effectiveness of message conveyance. Visual representations are used to convey messages metaphorically or directly, offering core messages and other qualities embedded. When markers are embedded in theses visual representations, they generate interest in the topics and issues under communication, create the urge to seek more information on them, and allow the users to explore more on the topics. Therefore, the visual representation can not only be considered attractive and pleasing but also are designed to tell stories effectively to help in the better carriage of the communication messages and meet the needs of the users for multiple usage modes. Visual communication, therefore, is not only used in communication as a way of telling stories but also a way of presenting underlying meanings. It also helps present concepts and events across time as well as disseminating information widely through various media. In the communication reports, visual depictions are used to communicate channels, modes, and applications in different spheres of life and to observe the cases and effects of viewers’ decision making.


Frank, Dalenogare, and Ayala (2019) studied language implementation patterns and posited that the world is experiencing the emergence of a new industrial age where technologies converge and provide digital solutions. The study aimed to fill the space of insufficient comprehension of how companies employ technologies and therefore help in adopting patterns of industrial 4.0 know-how and technology in firms. The researchers proposed a theoretical model for the implementation of the technologies that were categorized into base and front-end technologies. Front-end technologies encompassed four elements of smart working, smart manufacturing, smart supply, and intelligent products. Base technologies include four dimensions of the IoT, analytics, cloud services, and big data. The study surveyed 92 firms in the manufacturing sector the course of implementing technologies and found that industry 4.0 relating to a front end technology employment with smart manufacturing technologies playing a vital function. The study outcomes confirm that implementing base technologies is a challenge to many firms, given that analytics and big data are not well executed. The researchers propose that the technology layers of industry 4.0 and show adoption heights of the technologies and their implications in the manufacturing business.

Individual preferences

Change, planned or unexpected, is inevitable in life and careers like in the medical field, in the face of evolution. To maintain and improve patient care quality are, in most cases, met with resistance and conflicting factions attached to the status quo disrupting balance or homeostasis of a group or individual. Powell and Davies (2015), in an article ‘Inter-professional technological change relevance,’ argues that implementation of technological change within a group must be done to recognize beliefs, social and cultural backgrounds, education, and past experiences, both negative and positive, of an individual member of a group. These factors determine the resistance impact amount to the proposed or implemented change as a natural or expected response as this will help minimize or manage the resistance. They further posit that inter-professional leadership influences the resistance to change.

Noordegraaf (2016), in ‘Change is Constant,’ opines that setting a change agent is necessary to the facilitation and effecting of positive change. Also, growth can be fast due to the advancing technology and evidence-based research steering it to constant policy regeneration to ensure users get quality. The researcher also contends that an inter-professional collaborative effort is needed among stakeholders and users for change to be effectively effected as they inspire others for change for the improvement of outcomes. The researcher also claims that even though change improves quality and safety, a section of users may not appreciate it as they view it as expensive, time-consuming, troublesome, and job-threatening, such as in the case of technology integration due to limited knowledge. For change to happen effectively and efficiently in a healthcare organization, managers and leaders should plan for it to avoid resistance through staff education on new processes and the importance of change (Yost and North, 2006).

Adapting to Bias

Jordan (2016) reports that, like any other market, the technology market and investment are affected by demand and supply forces implying that there are factors that affect the buying and selling actions among the participants in the market. Among these factors are non-economic factors such as behavioral biases, religious, political events such as the infamous Brexit, wars, natural disasters such as earthquakes, currency heading and investments, investor speculation, HFT, and Algorithm trading and business sentiment (Laxar and CT, 1998). These factors have economic significance as they can affect investments in areas that they occur in, either by reducing or increasing investment opportunities and outcomes depending on the type of investment. Investing in technology requires psychology-based strategies offering mental fortitude to stick to the plan and develop traits such as patience and discipline to attain consistency. These strategies help eliminate self-inclinations to seek shortcuts, getting distracted, or making decisions informed by fear or greed. These kinds of traits lead to irrational and biased decisions despite being told (Holliman and Watson, 2015).

Frankel & Labby (2015) opine that behaviors of users can be logical or reasonable, and biases in them may lead to the making of lousy technology investment decisions attributes to emotional processes. Mental mistakes and individual personality traits inform technology investment decisions made by investors. Making investment decisions are not only based on analyzing numbers and performance table to sell and buy various assets and securities. Users must use reviews and managers to eliminate these biases that might lead them to make uninformed decisions that increase risks. These behavioral biases can be of many types, including cognitive and emotional biases, and lead to irrational decision making based on attitudes and behavior. Due to these, a user can be either classified as status-quo or overconfident. The best way to eliminating these biases is by making investors aware of them or using investment managers in making informed financial decisions.

Carnall (2018) claims that biased users have very minimal chances of survival since their investment decisions are not entirely based on financial facts and prognosis. Their investments are based on biases that are in no way related to the condition of the market, new opportunities, and the running of the companies that they are poised to invest. The CEOs of companies to be invested in are professionals that are capable of making wise decisions that will affect the performance of companies. Performance trends of companies should be assessed by independent advisors and managers to ensure investors’ monies are in the growth path by avoiding mispricing and correction patterns that could be managed by CEO’s to create an inaccurate impression. Elimination of the human element in making technology investment decision making is essential. It can be achieved by the use of third party management firms of individuals that advise and make an informed decision since they have sizeable real-time information on the state of the market and possess superior market watch and analysis technologies (Jiawei, Bailey, and Sutcliffe).

3D visualization

Geo Visualization

Neuville, Pouliot, Poux, DeRudder, and Billen (2018) reviewed Virtual 3D city models and opined that they are vital information center that support many city aspects such as planning, management, and simulation. The authors note that the models have not been fully exploited owing to ineffective visual communication route across developers and end-users of 3D models. The authors aimed to efficiently and usefully underpin visual identification and recognition of object in 3D. The researchers presented a solution based on a 3D geospatial data knowledge network that collects and links rendering and mapping techniques. The authors propose the use of second-order logic in formalization of the knowledge base and making it usable for decision making and provide a self of efficient graphic design guidelines to avoid creating graphical conflicts and improve visuals communication. The review implements an apt resolution in supporting the 3D geospatial model visualization process using software such as CAD and GIS. The authors also propose extending to OGC symbology encoding in the provision of appropriate graphic guidelines to web mapping services (CEFETES, 2008).

Gardony, Martis, Taylor, and Brunye (2018) believe that standalone augmented reality systems hold great potential for interactive 3D geo-visualization. Promising technologies such as the head-worn AR can show images of large-scale environments and permit intuitive relations through gestural and voice key-in. Users can participate in geo-visualization by interfaced, and relations stratagems give the most excellent spatial memory and navigation presentation.

Flow Visualization

Piri (2017) developed a 3D system for shipping information to integrate the active flow field and 3D virtual geographical environment. The study conducted by the author formulated a 2D hydrodynamic model to determine the wavelength of the waterway and depth and distribution of velocity using the synchronized hydrologic data monitoring. The study compared the traditional 2D navigation map with a combined flow simulation and visualization module to integrate flow velocity magnitude and distribution to enhance navigation to enhance the safety of navigation. The comparison helped display integrated scientific information with the potential for use within 3D information systems in several domains.

Multidimensional Data

Zhonghua and Lingda (2016) argue that parallel coordinates can be efficiently used to visualize multidimensional data when there is a shortage of displaying time-varying data. The authors suggest a new technique to add a time element to augment the parallel coordinates in 3D consisting of an attribute, time dimension, and range. Time-varying multidimensional data can be shown in the form of a polygon line cluster for recording and analyzing. Dataset highlighting around current time and results is done using a technique referred to as a clipping scale to reveal that 3D parallel Coordinates to analyze the time-saving character of an attribute effectively.

Architectural Design

Entezari et al. (2019) posit that the defects of the successful renaissance of vital bone tissue in serious size noteworthy pitfalls in the medical field. Synthetic scaffolds were developed as a response but were not successful due to poor performance. The authors demonstrate that architectural designs of scaffolds printed in 3D can help improve outcomes of regeneration. The author showed that manipulation of sizes of pores and permeability in scaffolds printed in 3D helped create a useful strategy for enhancement of results of bone regeneration.

Declarative Design Systems

Sicart et al. (2019) reviewed Vega and D3. They stated that there are already some tools for web-based visualization, including D3 for data-driven documents, and says that Vega does not replace D3 as it is of the higher library. The author refers to D3 as a visualization kernel designed to a layer that supports higher-level visualization tools.

Satyanarayan and Heer (2014) reviewed DXR as a toolkit used to build immersive data visualization utilizing the unity development platform. The author argued that immersive data visualization in virtual reality and augmented reality merged in latest years as a portentous means of interpreting data. The making of immersive visualizations is still a challenge that requires the intervention of complex low-level programming and tedious manual encoding data attributes, visual and geometric properties. According to the author, these can impede the process of idea to prototype for developers that have no experience with 3D graphics, augmented reality, and virtual reality programming. Programmers can proficiently spell out visualization plans with DXR by succinct declaration grammar based on Vega-Lite. DXR grants GUI for uncomplicated access and fast edits and visualization design previews in-situ virtually. It also offers reusable templates and modified graphical marks, and this enables unique and engaging visualizations (Bostock and Heer, n.d). The authors demonstrate the flexibility of the DXR using several examples from many applications.

Declarative Grammars for Visualization

Declarative visualization grammars help min the acceleration of development and facilitation of retargeting in many platforms. They also allow for optimizations at the language level. Most declarative visualization languages are only applicable in visual encoding and rely on imperative handlers for interaction behaviors (Carnall, 2018).

DirectX Raytracing is a microsoft’s DirectX feature for real time tracing. Protovis is used in composing data views with simple marks including dots and bars. It differs from low level graphic libraries that become tedious quickly for visualization. Protovis defines marks through dynamic properties encoding data, allow for inheritance, scales and layouts to simplify the process of construction. Lyra is an environment enabling custom visualization design without writing any code. Vega is a high level grammar of interactive graphics providing concise, declarative JSON syntax to create a range of visualization data. D3.js on the other hand is a Javascript library for visualization data with CSS, HTML and SVG (Wilkinson, n.d).

Services and Graphs (2010) argue there is a gamut of data visualization tools used in the field. However, there is still a gap to be the field between high-level visualization system efficiency and low-level graphical system expressiveness and accessibility. Power visualization systems are, at times, inflexible and can impose abstractions that are new to visual thinking. In contrast, graphical designs such as rendering APIs and programs drawn based on vector are tedious and complicated. The author argues that graphic design that is easy to use is customized for visualization is needed. The researchers present Protovis as an extensible toolkit applied in constructing visualization by composing graphical and straightforward primitives. The designers of Protovis regard visualization as a hierarchy of marks that have visual properties defined as data functions.

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing services can be offered in the ways of software as Service, Platform as a Service, and Infrastructure as a service. Also, such offerings an as Microsoft azure and amazon web services offered by some cloud service providers to provider platform and infrastructure services. Software as a service (SaaS) is a service capable of mitigating obstacles in the growth of cloud computing. It provides opportunities such as the fact that users get accounts used in accessing applications maintained and hosted by the service provider. It is also used mainly in the replacement of end-user applications, and its examples include Concur, Flickr, Google Apps, Citrix GoTo Meeting, Facebook, Cisco Webex, and Adobe Marketing Cloud. The joint security threat in this service category includes the stealing of user passwords and logins.

Service-oriented-architecture (SOA) is a software design style in which application components are used to provide services to other components through the network communication protocol. It was first referred to as service-based architecture in 1998 by the foundational management services developing team and then as business process-type services founded on the work units that use CORBA in inter-process communication (Goode, Lin, Tsai & Jiang, 2015). Cloud computing in SOA is a model used to access a usage-based network to a shared pool of configurable computing resources such as storage systems, services, network servers, and services.

Affordable bandwidth and capacity optimization technologies are making cloud backup popular with such options as public crowd direct data backup, including Microsoft Azure, AWS, or Google cloud platform. Another is by using a service provider in hosting and managing backups at their clouds and cloud-to-cloud data backup created using SaaS apps, including sales force and Microsoft 365 (Seethamraju, 2015). Advantages include efficiency and reliability in data backup as it uses the latest technologies such as compression encryption, data duplication, disk-based backups, and others. Also, capital savings scalability to low-cost consumers and small businesses that do not have a lot of data to protect are advantages of cloud data backup. Others are easy accessibility, improved recovery time for some datasets, and border protection. The cons include seeding data and full recovery based on the data capacity, size limitations, service discontinuation, and lack of efficient monitoring and managing tools (Wilkinson, n. d).

Clouds have to be realistically rendered in 3D applications. The advancement of GPU technology has made raymarching a viable and widespread technique to render clouds. Bittner (2018) gave a description and an overview of the method based on the game engine and recent games. The author explained cloud modeling, position, and lighting founded on physical reality and posits that pseudocode can be used to illustrate the concepts that interact in the raymarching renderer. The author describes potential optimization techniques and performance considerations to demonstrate the efficiency of highly realistic cloudscapes in real-time. The author discusses the limits of present-day technology and advancements in the future.

Ray tracing has been used for a long time in non-real-time rendering and provides lighting as it simulates the physical behavior of light. The method has been utilized to calculate the color of pixels when tracing the light path that was to be taken of it was to travel from the ye of the viewer through a virtual 3D scene. Light is reflected from one object to another as light travels traverse the scene resulting in reflections. Light is then blocked, but items and results in the formation of shadows or pass through semi-transparent or transparent objects to cause refractions. All the above interactions are combined to form the final pixel color that’s then displayed on the screen.

Ray tracing has always been considered the future of computer rendering. Still, the advent of consumer GPU is taking this position as it has enough computed capability to ray tracing workloads in real-time. The incorporation of any use cases is expected will use hybrid renders that combine ray tracing and rasterization (Van Rossun and Ferrio, n.d).

Technology stack is one of the essential things in the development of top-notch applications. The Tech stack can determine the success of a software product and is a collection of all technology services used in building, running, and managed an application. They are combining programming languages, frameworks, and tools that developers need to interface with the application (Borgo et al., 2013). A tech stack helps reflect the weaknesses and strengths as well as limitations and areas of improvement for a coding language.


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