HBCU DROPOUT RATES
The US Department of Education reports that African-Americans record the highest college dropouts rates than any other racial group. Most of these drop-outs take place in the second and fourth years of college (Kotok, Ikoma & Bodovski, 2016). The failure to complete a college education puts black students at risk of earning less annually than they should have if they had college degrees and with fewer career choices left and risk their access to healthcare (Patterson, Dunston & Daniels, 2013). Researchers illustrate that racial experiences such as discrimination and lack of cultural congruency have contributed to this state of things. The black student attrition phenomenon is an area not adequately researched as there is a lot of literature gaps in the already existing literature. This paper examines the factors behind the risk that threaten the college lives of black students. The study also examines the effect of racial identity, general campus view, perceived support levels support, influenced college GPA.
According to the US Department of Education (2013), the annual enrollment rates have since 1993 been over 50%. Over 50% of those enrolling do not proceed to finish their college education. A study by the department of education racial enrollment demographics found that blacks in the second year of college life record the highest number at 58% followed by Hispanics at 47.6% and white at 36.9%. Blacks still let at the fourth year with 28% compared to 25.7% for Hispanic and 19.4% for white. Blacks have the highest attrition rates regardless of institution.
The study also compiled the characteristics of dropouts and found that most dropouts were public institutions were from public institutions had either full-time or part-time jobs. On levels of family economic and educational backgrounds, parents with the highest educational level were high school or less with independent financial status. Most of the 2nd year dropouts were from lower annual income families.
In light of these revelations about the great risk of college dropout among black students, the causes of attrition rates need to be examined. Post-secondary education offers great monetary, societal, and individual benefits that serve to enhance opportunities for black graduates. The study will only cover the causes of college dropouts among black students. The study is limited to blacks and will not include whites or Hispanic or any race outside the scope of the paper.
The paper will help inform creating a conducive learning environment for the success of the black student. This analysis will also inform anti-racist calls and eliminate racial divides that are currently inherent in the higher institutional learning experience.
The study accommodated 187 African-American undergraduate student participants. 60 of them were males (32%), and 68% of them were females. 38% of them were learning in predominantly white institutions while 62& studied at predominantly black institutions. the mean age was 21.2 (SD=3.11).
The data obtained were screened for violation of assumptions, coding errors, missing values, outliers, and normality degrees. The data set produced no violations on coding and variables. The missing data amount was also not significant
43% of those interviewed blamed racial discrimination for their drop out where a transfer would have been necessary. 25% blamed unfavorable racial and academic climates for hard times in college. 175 blamed the lack of financial and social support and while the rest did not have good reasons for dropping out.
Results show that there is an increase in perceptions about the general campus, academic and racial climate with a decrease in performance among black students. Most students are concerned with trying to fit in and blend into the campuses to avoid social exclusion. This is negatively affecting their performance. They approach peers and faculty for assistance in matters of poor performance. Those who do not the help they need adequately, especially if these racist perceptions and concerns exist among the college staff, the students are most likely to drop out.
Overall findings support concepts that illustrate an interweaving of success in college for black students with environmental and personal racial dynamics. These interrelations were greatly expected since even most literature links these black student college dropouts to racial factors. Recommendations
These outcomes were prevalent in both predominantly white institutions and HBCU in unique ways that can only be contrasted speculatively (Branson, Marbory, Brown, Covington, McCauley & Nas, 2013). This calls for the presence of socially conscious educators, counselors, mentors, and psychologists to encourage and ensure the success of black students (Zang, Fei, Quddus & Davis, 2014). They can intervene with a range of strategies including conducting skilled and diversity-focused workshops. These can be done to ensure social support within professional development institutions has goals to ensure improved academic performance. The workshops might be designed to broaden cultural sensitivity through racial self-awareness facilitation, improve the perceptions of students on the concerns of the institutions, to assist students that negatively experience culture shock to acclimate with college life.
This paper aims to help improve the college experience among black students by ensuring tolerance and acceptance in addition to adding into the literature regarding the college experience of black students and their academic achievements.
Branson, R. A., Marbory, S., Brown, A., Covington, E., McCauley, K., & Nash, A. (2013). A Pilot Study: An Exploration of Social, Emotional, and Academic Factors Influencing School Dropout. Researcher: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 26(2).
Kotok, S., Ikoma, S., & Bodovski, K. (2016). School climate and dropping out of school in the era of accountability. American Journal of Education, 122(4), 569–599.
Patterson, G. C., Dunston, Y. L., & Daniels, K. N. (2013). Extreme makeover: Preserving the HBCU mission through service learning pedagogy. Journal of African American Studies, 17(2), 154–161.
Zhang, Y., Fei, Q., Quddus, M., & Davis, C. (2014). An Examination of the Impact of Early Intervention on Learning Outcomes of At-Risk Students. Research in Higher Education Journal, 26.